Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. Common uses include water, sewage, agriculture, petroleum and petrochemical pumping. Centrifugal pumps are often chosen for their high flow rate capabilities, abrasive solution compatibility, mixing potential, as well as their relatively simple engineering. A centrifugal fan is commonly used to implement an air handling unit or vacuum cleaner. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy.
The impeller is the key component of a centrifugal pump. It consists of a series of curved vanes. These are normally sandwiched between two discs (an enclosed impeller). For fluids with entrained solids, an open or semi-open impeller (backed by a single disc) is preferred. Fluid enters the impeller at its axis (the ‘eye’) and exits along the circumference between the vanes. The impeller, on the opposite side to the eye, is connected through a drive shaft to a motor and rotated at high speed (typically 500-5000rpm). The rotational motion of the impeller accelerates the fluid out through the impeller vanes into the pump casing. There are two basic designs of Centrifugal pump casing: volute and diffuser. The purpose in both designs is to translate the fluid flow into a controlled discharge at pressure.
The machinery that is used to move liquids using the hydraulic energy generated is called the centrifugal pump. They are generally used to make a current of water flow, as well as for the liquid’s movement.
There are many industrial sectors that need to use centrifugal pumps in their mechanical processes. Some of the sectors that use them most are the chemical industry, the cosmetic industry for the development of creams or the food industry for the elaboration of many types of products.